Does synonymy exist? Insights from corpora

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SYNONYMS OF FRIENDLY IN LDOCE:
a)      Friendly – behaving towards someone in a way that shows you like them and are ready to talk to them or help them;
b)     Amicable – an amicable agreement, relationship etc is one in which people feel friendly towards each other and do not want to quarrel;
c)      Neighbourly – behaving in a friendly and helpful way towards the people who live next to you or towards the countries that are next to you;
d)     Cordialfriendly but quite polite and formal;
e)      Amiablefriendly and easy to like;
f)       Genialfriendly and happy;
g)     Affablefriendly and easy to talk to [= pleasant];
h)      Sociable – someone who is sociable is friendly and enjoys being with other people;
i)        Approachable –friendly and easy to talk to;

 

Word
friendly
amicable
neighbourly
cordial
PMW
70.9
7
0.6
0.7
Nominal Collocates
area, aunt, connection, dispatch, faces, gestures, humans, invasion, passion, relations, societies, spirit
agreement, companions, debate, exchange, grant, relationship, settlement, situation, team, terms
association, act, behavior, concern, dispute, help, news, relations, support, visits
atmosphere, discussions, meeting, reception, relations, relationships, welcome
 
Selected adverbial collocates
almost, always, apparently, both, clearly, deceptively, environmentally, extremely, fairly, quite, relatively, still, very
always, fairly, less, more, most, quite, reasonably, so, very
less, more, very
Always, entirely, most, particularly, very
 
SOME REFLECTIONS:
1.      Amicable relates most to business, politics, trade and services.
2.      Friendly is predominantly connected with human emotions.
3.      Neighbourly is used in the limited choice of situations, usually closely connected with neighbor relations.
4.      Cordial is used in more formal situations than friendly and usually relates to interpersonal relations.
 
Paralinguistic distribution patterns:

 

Word
Friendly
Amicable
Neighbourly
Cordial
Medium
m_pub , to_be_spoken, m_unpub, book
m_unpub, periodical, book
Book, periodical, speech
m_pub , periodical, book
Domain
 
W_world_affairs, W_imaginative
W_soc_science, W_world_affairs, S_cg_leisure
W_soc_science, S_cg_business, W_belief_thought
W_world_affairs, W_leisure, W_imaginative
Genre
W_advert,
W_newsp_other_science
W_newsp_other_commerce, W_admin, W_newsp_other_arts
W_fict_drama, W_newsp_brdsht_nat_social, W_non_ac_soc_science
W_advert, W_non_ac_polit_law_edu, W_biography
Link
 

 

Warm-hearted
friendly, kind, and always willing to help
collocates
account, benevolence, celebration, character, personality, people
link
 

 

Well-disposed
feeling friendly towards a person or positive about an idea or plan
collocates
audience, person, reader
link
 

 

Buddy-buddy
informal especially American English; to be very friendly with someone
collocates
Movie, picture, series
link

ZOSTAW ODPOWIEDŹ

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